URL stands for Uniform Resource Locator. URL is the structured reference that guides us to web pages, files, and digital assets worldwide. It consists of several key components, including the scheme, host, port, path, query, and fragment.
URLs play a key role in our digital interactions as they serve as the gateways to the web, allowing us to navigate the internet, share resources, execute actions, and retrieve dynamic content.
The Anatomy of a URL
A URL consists of several key components, each having a specific purpose.
The scheme, often called the protocol, is the first part of a URL. It specifies the method or protocol used to access the resource. Common schemes include
http:// for Hypertext Transfer Protocol,
https:// for secure HTTP,
ftp:// for File Transfer Protocol,
mailto: for email addresses, and
file:// for local file system access.
The host component identifies the server's domain name or IP address where the resource is located. For example, in the URL
www.example.com is the host.
The port specifies the port number for connecting to the server. The default port for
80, and for
443. The port is optional, but if a different port is used than the default port, it must be included in the URL, such as
The path specifies the location of the resource on the server. When a client sends a request to a web server, it includes the entire URL and path. The web server uses the path information to locate the requested resource and send it back to the client. It is often represented as a series of directories or folders and may include the name of the resource file. For example, in the URL
/products/index.html is the path.
The query component is used to pass parameters or data to the resource. It comes after the path component and is separated by a question mark (?). The query component is optional and consists of one or more key-value pairs, each representing a parameter. For example, in the URL
https://www.example.com/search?q=URL, the query component is
It's important to note that the order of the key-value pairs in the query component does not matter, and the same key can appear multiple times with different values. There is an ampersand
& character separating the key-value pairs.
The fragment component of a URL is an optional component that points to a specific section within a resource. It is also known as a web page anchor or named element. A hash symbol
# separates the fragment component after the path and query components.
For example, in the URL
https://www.example.com/page#section1, the fragment component is
section1 is an anchor or named element in the web page.
The fragment component is often used to navigate to a specific section within a long web page. When you click on a link with a fragment identifier, your browser will scroll to the page section corresponding to the specified anchor tag. This can be helpful for users who want to find specific content quickly without having to scroll through a long page.
It's important to note that the fragment component is not sent to the server when the user requests the resource. Instead, the client-side browser handles everything entirely.